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Thabo Mbeki

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Die voormalige President van Suid-Afrika, asook die ANC. | A South African politician.
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Biography

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AFR:

 

Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (gebore 18 Junie 1942 in Idutywa, voormaile Transkei), is die voormalige President van Suid-Afrika, asook die ANC. Hy het Nelson Mandela op 16 Junie 1999 as President opgevolg. Meneer Mbeki het sy tweede termyn as President begin uitdien op 27 April 2004, nadat die ANC die algemene verkiesing van 2004 met 'n oorweldigende meerderheid gewen het. Op 20 September 2008, kondig hy aan dat hy as president sal bedank na 'n oproep in die verband deur die ANC se Uitvoerende Bestuurskomitee. Sy bedanking is met ingang van 25 September 2008 van krag.

 

Agtergrond

Hy is die seun van Govan en Epainette Mbeki, en het op Idutywa en Butterworth skoolgegaan. Hy was op hoërskool aan die Lovedale Institute in Alice, maar is geskors ná leerlingstakings in 1959, en moes sy leerwerk tuis voltooi. Mbeki het in 1959 sy matriek-eindeksamen aan St John's School in Umtata geskryf.

 

In 1956, terwyl hy nog 'n hoërskoolleerling is, sluit hy by die ANC Jeugliga aan. Nadat hy sy hoërskoolloopbaan voltooi het, raak hy betrokke by verskeie ondergrondse aktiwiteite in die Pretoria-Witwatersrand-gebied ná die ANC in 1960 verban is. Hy probeer in 1961 die republiekwording van Suid-Afrika verhinder, maar verlaat uiteindelik in 1962 die land op aanbeveling van die ANC.

 

Vryheidstryd

Mbeki gaan na Zimbabwe en toe na Kenia vir 'n kort tyd, voordat hy na Londen vertrek waar hy sy Britse A-vlak-eksamen in 1962 voltooi. Hy skryf hom in aan die Universiteit van Londen waar hy sy eerstejaargraad in ekonomie as 'n eksterne student behaal. Terselfdertyd mobiliseer hy studente om in Londen protes teen apartheid aan te teken. Mbeki studeer in Londen tot 1966 toe hy sy Meestersgraad in Ekonomie aan die Universiteit van Sussex verwerf.

 

Vanaf 1967 tot 1970 werk hy vir die ANC se kantoor in Londen, wat hom vir militêre opleiding in die Sowjet-Unie stuur. Tussen 1971 en 1978 verrig hy verskeie take vir die ANC in Afrika. Hy reis onder meer na Botswana, Swaziland en Nigerië, waar hy met verskeie persone onderhandel. Hy trou in 1974 met Zanele Dlamini.

 

In 1978 beklee Mbeki die rang van Politieke Sekretaris in die kantoor van die President van die ANC. Hy vorder in 1984 tot Direkteur van die Departement van Inligting en Publisiteit van die ANC, 'n pos wat hy tot en met 1989 hou. Hy was ook betrokke by geheime vergaderings tussen ANC-lede en lede van die destydse Nasionale Party-regering, asook by die Dakar-Beraad waar vername Afrikaanssprekendes die ANC ontmoet het.

 

Post 1994

Onderhandelinge tussen dié twee politieke groepe lei daartoe dat die ANC wettig verklaar en dat politieke gevangenes vrygelaat word. Hy is ook betrokke by onderhandelinge wat in 1994 tot die eerste demokratiese verkiesing lei, en die opstelling van die nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse grondwet.

 

Vanaf 1994 tot 1999 beklee hy die amp van Uitvoerende Adjunk-President van die Suid-Afrikaanse regering, waarna hy met Mandela se uittrede tot President verkies word.

 

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ENG:

 

Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942) is a South African politician who served two terms as the second post-apartheid President of South Africa from 14 June 1999 to 24 September 2008. He is also the brother of Moeletsi Mbeki. On 20 September 2008, he announced his resignation after being recalled by the African National Congress's National Executive Committee, following a conclusion by Judge Nicholson of improper interference in the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA), including the prosecution of Jacob Zuma for corruption. On 12 January 2009, the Supreme Court of Appeal unanimously overturned Judge Nicholson’s judgment but the resignation stood.

 

Thabo Mbeki was the executive face of government in South Africa from 1994. During his time in office the economy grew at an average rate of 4.5% per year. Mbeki created employment in the middle sectors of the economy and oversaw a fast-growing black middle class with the implementation of Black Economic Empowerment (BEE). This growth exacerbated the demand for trained professionals strained by emigration due to violent crime, but failed to address unemployment amongst the unskilled bulk of the population. He attracted the bulk of Africa’s Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and made South Africa the focal point of African growth. He was the architect of NEPAD whose aim is to develop an integrated socio-economic development framework for Africa. He also oversaw the successful building of economic bridges to BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) nations with the eventual formation of the India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum to "further political consultation and co-ordination as well as strengthening sectoral co-operation, and economic relations".

 

Mbeki has mediated in difficult and complex issues on the African continent including Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Côte d'Ivoire, and some important peace agreements. He oversaw the transition from the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) to the African Union (AU). His 'quiet diplomacy' in Zimbabwe, however, is blamed for protracting the survival of Robert Mugabe's regime at the cost of thousands of lives and intense economic pressure on Zimbabwe's neighbours. He became a vocal leader of the Non-Aligned Movement in the United Nations and while leveraging South Africa's seat on the Security Council. agitating for reform of that body.

 

Mbeki has received worldwide criticism for his AIDS stance. He questions the link between viruses and AIDS and believes that the correlation between poverty and the AIDS rate in Africa was a challenge to the viral theory of AIDS. His fate was not helped by Health Minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang and the overhaul of the pharmaceutical industry in South Africa. The delay in distributing antiretroviral drugs is attributed to the ban he placed on their use in public state hospitals, and is also linked to the estimated deaths o. some hundreds of thousands. Thabo Mbeki has also been criticized for responding to negative comments made about his government by accusing critics of racism.

 

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4 November 2008

updated: 2013-04-22

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