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Rákosi Mátyás

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Volt magyar kommunista politikus. | Was a Hungarian communist politician. Died in 1971.
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Rákosi Mátyás (szül. Rosenfeld Mátyás, Ada, 1892. március 9. – Gorkij, Szovjetunió, 1971. február 5.) 1945–56 között a Magyar Kommunista Párt illetve a Magyar Dolgozók Pártja fő-, majd első titkára, 1952–53-ban a Magyar Népköztársaság Minisztertanácsának elnöke is.







Mátyás Rákosi (9 March 1892 – 5 February 1971) was a Hungarian communist politician. He was born Mátyás Rosenfeld in Ada (in present-day Serbia). He was the leader of Hungary's Communist Party from 1945 to 1956 — first as General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party (1945–1948) and later holding the same post with the Hungarian Working People's Party (1948–1956). As such, from 1949 to 1956, he was the de facto ruler of Communist Hungary. His rule was aligned with USSR politics during Joseph Stalin's government.


Early years

Rákosi was born in Ada, a village in Bács-Bodrog County in what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire (now in Vojvodina, Serbia). Born into a Jewish family, the fourth son of a grocer (his mother would give birth to seven more children), he later repudiated religion and totally repudiated Judaism.


He served in the Austro-Hungarian Army during the First World War and was captured on the Eastern Front. After returning to Hungary, he participated in the communist government of Béla Kun; after its fall he fled, eventually to the Soviet Union where he worked as part of the Communist International, including representing it at the Livorno congress of the Italian Socialist Party. After returning to Hungary in 1924 he was imprisoned, and was released to the Soviet Union in 1940, in exchange for the Hungarian revolutionary banners captured by the Russian troops at Világos in 1849. In the Soviet Union, he became leader of the Comintern. He returned to Debrecen, Hungary, on 30 January 1945, sent by Soviet leadership, to organize the Communist Party.


Political career

When the Red Army set up a Soviet-approved government in Hungary (1944-1945), Rákosi was appointed General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party (MKP) (1945). He was a member of the High National Council from 27 September to 7 December 1945. Rákosi was deputy prime minister from 1945 to 1949, and was acting Prime Minister from 1 to 4 February 1946 and on 31 May 1947. By 1948, Rákosi had dropped all pretense of democracy. That summer, the Communists forced the Social Democrats to merge with them to form the Hungarian Working People's Party (MDP).


On 9 March 1955, the Central Committee of the MDP condemned Nagy for "rightist deviation". Hungarian newspapers joined the attacks and Nagy was accused of responsibility for the country's economic problems. On 18 April a unanimous vote of the National Assembly dismissed Nagy from his post. Although the Kremlin frowned on a return of Rákosi to the premiership, he and Nagy's successor, András Hegedüs, quickly put the country back on its previous Stalinist course.


Rákosi was then removed as General Secretary of the Party under pressure from the Soviet Politburo in June 1956 (shortly after Nikita Khrushchev's Secret Speech), and was replaced by his former second-in-command, Ernő Gerő. To remove him from the Hungarian political scene, the Soviet Politburo forced Rákosi to move to the Soviet Union in 1956, with the official story being that he was "seeking medical attention." He spent the rest of his life in the Kirgiz Soviet Socialist Republic. Shortly before his death, in 1970, Rákosi was finally granted permiss. on to return to Hungary if he promised not to engage in any political activities. He refused the deal, and remained in the USSR where he died in Gorky in 1971.



May 18, 2012

updated: 2013-11-04

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