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People's Mujahedin of Iran

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سازمان مجاهدین خلق ایران | The People's Mujahedin of Iran or the Mojahedin-e-Khalq (MEK, also PMOI, MKO) is an Iranian revolutionary organization.
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سازمان مجاهدین خلق ایران سازمان سیاسی است که ساختار شبه‌نظامی دارد. این سازمان در سال ۱۳۴۴ خورشیدی توسط محمد حنیف‌نژاد پایه‌گذاشته شد. سازمان مجاهدین پس از شکل‌گیری، به اقدام مسلحانه علیه دودمان پهلوی پرداخت. هرچند متحمّل ضربات سختی از سوی سازمان امنیت و اطلاعات کشور (ساواک) شد و رهبران سازمان به حکم دادگاه نظامی وقت، به جرم «اقدام علیه امنیت کشور، اعمال تروریستی و ترور اتباع ایرانی و آمریکایی»، به اعدام محکوم و برخی نیز زندانی شدند.

 

پس از پیروزی انقلاب ۱۳۵۷ ایران، سازمان مجاهدین خلق به رهبری موسی خیابانی و مسعود رجوی موفق به یارگیری گسترده در بین اقشار مختلف جامعه‌ی ایران شد، امّا بر سر جنگ قدرت با روحانیون وقت، از جمله روح‌الله خمینی، به اقدامات مسلحانه علیه نظام جمهوری اسلامی روی آورد. پس از وقایع ۳۰ خرداد ۱۳۶۰ خورشیدی، این سازمان هدف خود را سرنگونی نظام جمهوری اسلامی ایران عنوان کرد. سازمان مجاهدین سپس زیر چتر حمایت صدام حسین، رئیس‌جمهور وقت عراق قرار گرفت و در حالی که آن کشور با ایران در حال جنگ بود، با انتقال گسترده هواداران و طرفدارانش به عراق و با همکاری و مساعدت ارتش عراق، اقدام به تشکیل بازویی نظامی به نام «ارتش آزادی‌بخش» کرد و در کنار ارتش عراق در جنگ علیه ایران مشارکت کرد. این نیروی نظامی در طول جنگ ایران و عراق، از سوی خاک عراق، بیش از یکصد عملیات نظامی علیه مواضع نیروهای ایرانی شکل داد.

 

در ادبیات حکومتی ایران از سازمان مجاهدین خلق با عناوینی چون «سازمان منافقین» و یا «فرقه رجوی» یاد می‌شود.

 

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The People's Mujahedin of Iran or the Mojahedin-e-Khalq (MEK, also PMOI, MKO) (Persian: سازمان مجاهدين خلق ايران sāzmān-e mojāhedin-e khalq-e irān) is an Iranian revolutionary organization that participated in the 1979 Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi Shah. It has not been armed since 2003 and this has been acknowledged by several US military officials. After disarming, the Group accepted protection from the US military under the 4th Geneva Convention. It is now an opposition movement in exile, that advocates the overthrow of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

 

Founded on September 5, 1965 by a group of leftist Muslim Iranian university students as an Islamic and Marxist political mass movement, the MEK was originally devoted to armed struggle against the Shah of Iran, capitalism, and Western imperialism. In the immediate aftermath of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, the MEK and the Tudeh Party at first chose to side with the clerics led by Ayatollah Khomeini against the liberals, nationalists and other moderate forces within the revolution. A power struggle ensued, and by mid-1981, MEK was fighting street battles against the Islamic Revolutionary Guards. During the Iran–Iraq War, the group was given refuge by Saddam Hussein and mounted attacks on Iran from within Iraqi territory.

 

The group claims to have renounced violence in 2001 and today it is the main component organization of the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), an "umbrella coalition" calling itself the "parliament-in-exile dedicated to a democratic, secular and coalition government in Iran." While the MEK's leadership has resided in Paris France, the group's core members were for many years confined to Camp Ashraf in Iraq, and "were disarmed in the wake of the US-led invasion and are said to have adhered to a ceasefire." The group's remaining 3,200 members were recently compelled to move to ex-US military base Camp Liberty. In January 2013, following the removal of MEK from Camp Ashraf, Sadeq al-Husseini, the deputy chairman of Diyala's provincial council affirmed that several mass graves have been unearthed there. The MEK/NCRI is thought to have provided the United States with intelligence on Iran's nuclear program in 2002 and 2008.

 

Iraq and Iran designate the MEK as a terrorist organization. The European Union, Canada and the United States formerly listed the MEK as a terrorist organization, but this designation has since been lifted, first by the Council of the European Union in January 26, 2009 (following what the group called a “seven-year-long legal and political battle”), then by a decision by U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton on September 21, 2012 and lastly by a decision by a Canadian government on December 20, 2012.

 

Lea. er: Maryam Rajavi

Founded: September 5, 1965

Ideology: Previously "Islamic Marxist"; Today claims to be secular and democratic

 

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12th November 08

updated: 2013-04-07

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