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Emperor Shōwa

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photo 昭和天皇

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昭和天皇 第124代天皇 | Hirohito (Emperor Shōwa) was the 124th Emperor of Japan from 1926 until his death in 1989.
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Biography

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JPN:

 

昭和天皇(しょうわてんのう、1901年(明治34年)4月29日 - 1989年(昭和64年)1月7日)は、日本の第124代天皇(在位:1926年(昭和元年)12月25日 - 1989年(昭和64年)1月7日)である。

 

諱は裕仁(ひろひと)。幼少時の称号は迪宮(みちのみや)、お印は若竹(わかたけ)。

 

概要

歴代天皇の中で(神話上の天皇を除くと)在位期間が最も長く(約62年)、最も長寿(宝算87)であった。

 

大日本帝国憲法の下では「國ノ元首ニシテ統治權ヲ總攬」する立憲君主制における天皇として、終戦の国策決定などに深く関与した。1947年(昭和22年)に施行された日本国憲法の下では「日本国の象徴であり日本国民統合の象徴」である天皇として「国政に関する権能を有しない」ものとされた。しかし占領期にはGHQ総司令官ダグラス・マッカーサーとの会見などにより、独自の政治的影響力を保持した。主権回復後には、象徴天皇として皇室外交を行った。

 

また、天皇としての公務の傍らヒドロ虫(ヒドロゾア)・変形菌(粘菌)などを、生物学研究者として研究した。

 

1989年(昭和64年)1月7日午前6時33分、十二指腸乳頭周囲腫瘍(腺癌)により崩御(宝算87)。神代を除く歴代の天皇で最も長寿であった。崩御後、政府は藤森昭一宮内庁長官が「天皇陛下におかせられましては、本日、午前六時三十三分、吹上御所において崩御あらせられました。」と発表した。同年(平成元年)1月31日、今上天皇が、在位中の元号から採り昭和天皇追号した。2月24日、新宿御苑において大喪の礼が行われ、武蔵野陵に埋葬された。愛用の品100点余りが、副葬品として共に納められたとされる。

 

ソース

 

 

ENG:

 

Hirohito (裕仁), posthumously referred to as Emperor Shōwa (昭和天皇 Shōwa-tennō, April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) in Japan, was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death in 1989. Although better known outside of Japan by his personal name Hirohito, in Japan he is now referred to primarily by his posthumous name Emperor Shōwa. The word Shōwa is the name of the era that corresponded with the Emperor's reign, and was made the Emperor's own name upon his death. The name 裕仁 means "abundant benevolence".

 

At the start of his reign, Japan was already one of the great powers — the ninth-largest economy in the world after Italy, the third-largest naval power, and one of the four permanent members of the council of the League of Nations. He was the head of state under the limitation of the Constitution of the Empire of Japan during Japan's imperial expansion, militarization, and involvement in World War II. After the war, he was not prosecuted for war crimes as many other leading government figures were, despite his involvement. During the postwar period, he became the symbol of the new state and Japan's recovery, and by the end of his reign, Japan had emerged as the world's second largest economy.

 

Early life

Born in Tokyo's Aoyama Palace, Hirohito was the first son of Crown Prince Yoshihito (the future Emperor Taishō) and Crown Princess Sadako (the future Empress Teimei). His childhood title was Prince Michi (迪宮 Michi no miya). In 1908, he began elementary studies at the Gakushūin (Peers School).

 

Prince Hirohito married his distant cousin Princess Nagako Kuni (the future Empress Kōjun), the eldest daughter of Prince Kuni Kuniyoshi, on January 26, 1924. They had two sons and five daughters. The daughters who lived to adulthood left the imperial family as a result of the American reforms of the Japanese imperial household in October 1947 (in the case of Princess Higashikuni) or under the terms of the Imperial Household Law at the moment of their subsequent marriages (in the cases of Princesses Kazuko, Atsuko, and Takako).

 

Ascension

On December 25, 1926, Hirohito assumed the throne upon his father, Yoshihito's, death. The Crown Prince was said to have received the succession (senso). The Taishō era's end and the Shōwa era's beginning (Enlightened Peace) were proclaimed. The deceased Emperor was posthumously renamed Emperor Taishō within days. Following Japanese custom, the new Emperor was never referred to by his given name, but rather was referred to simply as "His Majesty the Emperor" (天皇陛下 tennō heika), which may be shortened to "His Majesty" (陛下 heika). In writing, the Emperor was also referred to formally as "The Reigning Emperor" (今上天皇 kinjō tennō).

 

Death

On September 22, 1987, the Emperor underwent surgery on his pancreas after having digestive problems for several months. The doctors discovered that he had duodenal cancer. On January 7, 1989, at 7:55 AM, the grand steward of Japan's Imperial Household Agency, Shoichi Fujimori, officially announced the death of Emperor Hirohito, and revealed details about his cancer for the first time.

 

The emperor's death ended the Shōwa era. On the same day a new era began: the Heisei era, effective at midnight the following day. From January 7, until January 31, the emperor's formal appellation was Taikō Tennō (大行天皇, "Departed Emperor"). His definitive posthumous name, Shōwa Tennō (昭和天皇), was determined on January 13 and formally released on January 31 by Toshiki Kaifu, the prime minister.

 

Titles

  • 29 April 1901 – 30 July 1912: His Imperial Highness The Prince Michi
  • 30 July 1912 – 29 November 1921: His Imperial Highness The Crown Prince of Japan
  • 29 November 1921 – 25 December 1926: His Imperial Highness The Regent of Japan
  • 25 December 1926 &n. ash; 7 January 1989: His Imperial Majesty The Emperor of Japan
  • Posthumous title: His Imperial Majesty Emperor Shōwa

 

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19th November 08

updated: 2013-04-13

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