Rudolph William Louis "Rudy" Giuliani (born May 28, 1944) is an American lawyer, businessman, and politician from New York. He served as Mayor of New York City from 1994 to 2001. A Democrat and Independent in the 1970s, and a Republican since the 1980s, Giuliani served in the United States Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York, eventually becoming U.S. Attorney. He prosecuted a number of high-profile cases, including ones against organized crime and Wall Street financiers. Giuliani served two terms as Mayor of New York City, having run on the Republican and Liberal lines. He was credited with initiating improvements and with a reduction in crime pressing the city's quality of life initiatives. He ran for the United States Senate in 2000 but withdrew due to being diagnosed with prostate cancer and revelations about his personal life. Giuliani gained international attention for his leadership, during and after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center. For those actions, he received an honorary knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II in 2002. After leaving office as mayor, Giuliani founded Giuliani Partners, a security consulting business; acquired Giuliani Capital Advisors (later sold), an investment banking firm; and joined the Bracewell & Giuliani law firm, which changed its name when he became a partner. Giuliani ran for the Republican Party nomination in the 2008 United States presidential election. After leading in national polls for much of 2007, his candidacy faltered late in that year; he rated poorly in the caucuses and primaries of January 2008 and withdrew from the race. Giuliani considered running for both Governor and Senator in 2010, but decided not to run and remain active in his business career. Giuliani is considering a run in the United States presidential election, 2012.
Rudolph Giuliani was born in an Italian-American enclave in East Flatbush in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, the only child of working-class parents, Harold Angelo Giuliani (1908–1981) and Helen (née D'Avanzo; 1909–2002), both first-generation Americans, children of Italian immigrants. He was raised a Roman Catholic. Harold Giuliani had trouble holding a job and had been convicted of felony assault and robbery and served time in Sing Sing; after his release he served as an enforcer for his brother-in-law Leo D'Avanzo, who ran an organized crime operation involved in loan sharking and gambling at a restaurant in Brooklyn. Giuliani started his political life as a Democrat. He has stated that he admires the Kennedy family, and volunteered for Robert F.
Kennedy's presidential campaign in 1968. He also worked as a Democratic party committeeman on Long Island in the mid-1960s, and voted for George McGovern for president in 1972.
Mayor of New York City
Rudy Giuliani served as mayor of New York City from 1994 through 2001. In Giuliani's first term as mayor, the New York City Police Department at the instigation of Commissioner Bill Bratton adopted an aggressive enforcement/deterrent strategy based on James Q. Wilson's "Broken Windows" approach. During Giuliani's administration, crime rates continued to drop in New York City, which Giuliani's presidential campaign website credited to his leadership.
Giuliani's supporters cite studies concluding that New York's drop in crime rate in the 1990s and 2000s exceeds all national figures and therefore should be linked with a local dynamic that was not present as such anywhere else in the country: what University of California sociologist Frank Zimring calls "the most focused form of policing in history". During his mayoralty, gay and lesbian New Yorkers received domestic partnership rights. Due to term limits, Giuliani could not run in 2001 for a third term as Mayor.
2000 U.S. Senate campaign
Due to his high profile and visibility Giuliani was supported by the state Republican Party, even though he had irritated many by endorsing incumbent Democratic Governor Mario Cuomo over Republican George Pataki in 1994. In April 1999, Giuliani formed an exploratory committee in connection with the Senate run.
By January 2000, Giuliani had reversed the polls situation, pulling nine points ahead after taking advantage of several campaign stumbles by Clinton. Clinton was now 8 to 10 points ahead of Giuliani in the polls. Then followed four tumultuous weeks, in which Giuliani's medical life, romantic life, marital life, and political life all collided at once in a most visible fashion. Giuliani discovered that he had prostate cancer and needed treatment; his extramarital relationship with Judith Nathan became public and the subject of a media frenzy; he announced a separation from his wife Donna Hanover; and, after much indecision, on May 19, 2000 he announced his withdrawal from the Senate race.
2008 presidential campaign
In November 2006 Giuliani announced the formation of an exploratory committee toward a run for President of the United States in 2008. Giuliani's campaign hit a difficult stretch during November and December 2007, in which Bernard Kerik, whom Giuliani had appointed to or recommended for several top positions, was indicted on 16 counts of tax fraud and other federal charges. Giuliani withdrew from the race on January 30, endorsing McCain. Giuliani's campaign ended up $3.6 million in arrears, and in June 2008 Giuliani sought to retire the debt by proposing to appear at Republican fundraisers during the 2008 general election, and have part of the proceeds go towards his campaign. Giuliani continued to be one of McCain's most active surrogates during the remainder of McCain's eventually unsuccessful campaign.
After 2008 election
Following the end of his presidential campaign, Giuliani's "high appearance fees dropped like a stone." He returned to work at both Giuliani Partners and Bracewell & Giuliani. In April 2009, Giuliani strongly opposed Paterson's announced push for same-sex marriage in New York and said it would likely cause a backlash that could put Republicans in statewide office in 2010. As of early 2010, Giuliani continues to appear frequently as a television political commentator. He and his viewpoints have been criticized by Markos Moulitsas and other liberal bloggers. In late October 2010, Giuliani threw his support to former Maryland governor Bob Ehrlich in the Maryland Governor's race, calling Ehrlich one of the best governors of all time. As 2011 began, Giuliani was seriously considering a run for the Republican nomination in the United States presidential election, 2012. Many political observers, and some of Giuliani's 2008 staff, were reportedly skeptical that Giuliani would actually do this.
December 2, 2009