NOR - Kongeriket Norge (nynorsk: Kongeriket Noreg) er et nordisk land vest på den skandinaviske halvøya. Til lands grenser Norge mot Sverige, Finland og Russland i øst. Landet er langt og smalt, og kysten strekker seg langs Nordatlanteren med havområder som Skagerrak, Nordsjøen, Norskehavet og Barentshavet, hvor også Norges kjente fjorder befinner seg. Øya Jan Mayen i nordvest er administrert som en del av hovedlandet og grenser til havs mot islandsk farvann. Øygruppen Svalbard er under norsk suverenitet med de begrensninger Svalbardtraktaten setter, men er i likhet med Jan Mayen en del av kongeriket. Bouvetøya i Sydatlanteren er derimot et norsk biland. Norge gjør også krav på Peter 1.s øy i det sørlige Stillehavet og territoriet Dronning Maud Land i Antarktis, men begge disse omfattes av Antarktis-traktaten, som legger territoriale krav i Antarktis på is. På grunn av uenighet om delelinjen mellom norsk og russisk territorialfarvann i Barentshavet, finnes det et område som inntil videre blir administrert av begge statene, den såkalte Gråsonen.
ENG - Norway (Norwegian: Norge (Bokmål) or Noreg (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a country in Northern Europe occupying the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, as well as Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard under the Spitsbergen Treaty. The majority of the country shares a border to the east with Sweden; its northernmost region is bordered by Finland to the south and Russia to the east. The United Kingdom and the Faroe Islands lie to its west across the North Sea, and Denmark lies south of its southern tip across the Skagerrak Strait. Bouvet Island and Peter I Island are dependent territories (Norwegian: biland) of Norway, but not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land, a claim that has been recognised by Australia, France, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Norway's extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, is home to its famous fjords.
Inhabited since at least the 10th millennium BC, Norway was unified according to tradition by Harald Fairhair (Harald Hårfagre) in 872 AD after the Battle of Hafrsfjord. The Viking age saw rapid expansion and emigration, Christianity gradually manifesting itself in the 10th and 11th centuries. The country entered into the Kalmar Union with Denmark and Sweden in 1319, remaining under Denmark when Sweden left in 1521. In 1814, Norway was ceded to Sweden following Denmark's alliance with Napoleon, for which Denmark was later penalised. Declaring independence on 7 June 1905, Norway called on a Danish prince to become King Haakon VII; the first king of an independent Norway in 586 years. However, independence only lasted until 9 April 1940, when Norway was occupied by Nazi Germany.
After the Second World War, the country has experienced rapid economic growth, particularly as a result of large oil deposits discovered in the early 1970s. Today it ranks amongst the wealthiest countries in the world, with the largest capital reserve per capita of any nation. Norway is the world’s fourth largest oil exporter and the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of its GDP. Following the ongoing financial crisis of 2007-2009, bankers have deemed the Norwegian krone to be one of the most solid currencies in the world.
Norway also has rich resources of gas fields, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals. The country was the second largest exporter of seafood (in value, after the People’s Republic of China) in 2006. Other main industries include shipping, food processing, shipbuilding, metals, chemicals, mining, fishing and pulp and paper products. Norway maintains a Scandinavian welfare model with universal healthcare, free higher education and a comprehensive social security system. Norway was ranked highest of all countries in human development from 2001 to 2006. It was also rated the most peaceful country in the world in a 2007 survey by Global Peace Index.
Although having rejected EU membership at two referendums, Norway maintains close ties with the Union and its member countries, as well as with the USA. It is considered a prominent participant in diplomacy and international development, having been heavily involved with the failed Oslo Accords and negotiated a truce between the Sri Lanka government and the Tamil Tigers. Norway remains one of the biggest financial contributors to the UN, and participates with forces in international missions, notably in Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo and Sudan.
A unitary state with administrative sub-divisions on two levels known as counties (fylker) and municipalities (kommuner), Norway is a constitutional, hereditary monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with King Harald V as its Head of State. It is a founding member of UN, NATO, the Council of Europe and the Nordic Council, and member of the European Economic Area, WTO and OECD.
Kingdom of Norway - Kongeriket Norge, Kongeriket Noreg
Motto: Royal: Alt for Norge / Alt for Noreg - ("Everything for Norway")
1814 Eidsvoll oath: Enig og tro til Dovre faller - ("United and loyal until the mountains of Dovre crumble")
Anthem: Unofficial: Ja, vi elsker dette landet - ("Yes, we love this country")
Official: Sønner av Norge - ("Sons of Norway")
Royal anthem: Kongesangen - ("Song of the King")
Capital (and largest city): Oslo
Official languages: Norwegian (Bokmål and Nynorsk)
Government: Parliamentary democracy under constitutional monarchy
- Monarch: Harald V
- Prime Minister: Jens Stoltenberg (Ap)
- Storting President: Thorbjørn Jagland (Ap)
- Chief Justice: Tore Schei
- Current coalition: Red-Green Coalition