FRA - Les Pays-Bas (Nederland en néerlandais, Néerlande, forme française désuète qui n'a jamais été d'usage courant) sont la partie européenne et continentale du Royaume des Pays-Bas (ce dernier incluant également des territoires insulaires dans la mer des Caraïbes), une monarchie constitutionnelle. Ils sont situés au nord-ouest de l'Europe et sont bordés par la mer du Nord, la Belgique et l'Allemagne. Par extension, on utilise le terme Pays-Bas pour désigner l'ensemble du Royaume des Pays-Bas (y compris donc Aruba et les Antilles néerlandaises). Un abus de langage courant (et parfois pratiqué par les Néerlandais eux-mêmes) désigne les Pays-Bas et les Néerlandais respectivement par la Hollande et les Hollandais (et même parfois la langue néerlandaise par le hollandais). La Hollande stricto sensu n'est qu'une des régions des Pays-Bas divisée en deux provinces (Hollande-Septentrionale et Hollande-Méridionale), abritant les grandes villes du pays (Amsterdam, La Haye, Rotterdam)1, et le hollandais une catégorie de dialectes parlés dans ces provinces.
ENG - The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland) is a country that is part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy. The Netherlands is located in Northwestern Europe, and bordered by the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east. The capital is Amsterdam and the seat of government is The Hague. The Netherlands is often called Holland, which is formally incorrect as North and South Holland are actually two of its twelve provinces (see terminology of "the Netherlands"). The word Dutch is used to refer to the people, the language, and anything appertaining to the Netherlands.
Being one of the first parliamentary democracies, the Netherlands was a modern country from its very foundation. Among other affiliations the country is a founding member of the European Union (EU), NATO, OECD, WTO, and has signed the Kyoto protocol. With Belgium and Luxembourg it forms the Benelux economic union. The country is host to five international courts: the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the International Court of Justice, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Court and the Special Tribunal for Lebanon. The former four are situated in The Hague as is the EU's criminal intelligence agency Europol. This has led to the city being dubbed "the world's legal capital."
The Netherlands is a geographically low-lying country, with about 27% of its area and 60% of its population located below sea level. Significant areas have been gained through land reclamation and preserved through an elaborate system of polders and dikes. Much of the Netherlands is formed by the estuary of three important European rivers, which together with their distributaries form the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta. Most of the country is very flat, with the exception of foothills in the far south–east and several low-hill ranges in the central parts created by ice-age glaciers.
The Netherlands is a densely populated country. It is known for its traditional windmills, tulips, cheese, clogs - wooden shoes, delftware and gouda pottery, for its bicycles, and in addition, traditional values and civil virtues such as its social tolerance. The country has more recently become known for its liberal policies toward drugs, prostitution, homosexuality, and euthanasia. It also has one of the most free market capitalist economies in the world, ranking 12th of 157 countries in one index.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands - Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
Motto: "Je maintiendrai" (French) - "Ik zal handhaven" (Dutch) - "I shall stand fast"
Anthem: "Het Wilhelmus"
Capital (and largest city): Amsterdam
Official languages: Dutch
Government: Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy
- Monarch: Queen Beatrix
- Prime Minister: Jan Peter Balkenende (CDA)