মমতা বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায় (জন্ম ৫ জানুয়ারি, ১৯৫৫) পশ্চিমবঙ্গের বর্তমান মুখ্যমন্ত্রী এবং সর্বভারতীয় তৃণমূল কংগ্রেসের প্রতিষ্ঠাতা-সভানেত্রী। বর্তমানে তিনি পশ্চিমবঙ্গ সরকারের স্বরাষ্ট্র, স্বাস্থ্য ও পরিবার পরিকল্পনা, ভূমি ও ভূমিসংস্কার, তথ্য ও সংস্কৃতি, পর্বতাঞ্চল বিষয়ক, কৃষি, বিদ্যুৎ, কর্মী ও প্রশাসনিক সংস্কার, সংখ্যালঘু কল্যাণ ও মাদ্রাসা শিক্ষা বিভাগেরও ভারপ্রাপ্ত মন্ত্রী। তিনি পশ্চিমবঙ্গের প্রথম মহিলা মুখ্যমন্ত্রী। মমতা বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায় একজন বাগ্মী রাজনীতিবিদ। তিনি তাঁর অনুগামীদের কাছে "দিদি" নামে পরিচিত। সম্প্রতি তাঁর নেতৃত্বে তৃণমূল কংগ্রেস পশ্চিমবঙ্গের ৩৪ বছরের বামফ্রন্ট সরকারকে পরাজিত করতে সক্ষম হয়েছে। এই সরকার বিশ্বে সবচেয়ে বেশি সময় গণতান্ত্রিক উপায়ে রাজত্বকারী কমিউনিস্ট সরকার ছিল। ভারতীয় প্রজাতন্ত্রের কেন্দ্রীয় ক্যাবিনেটে তিনি দুই বার রেল, এক বার কয়লা মন্ত্রকের এবং এক বার মানবসম্পদ উন্নয়ন, যুব, ক্রীড়া, নারী ও শিশুকল্যাণ বিভাগের রাষ্ট্রমন্ত্রীর দায়িত্ব সামলেছেন। তিনি পশ্চিমবঙ্গে কৃষকদের জমি বলপূর্বক অধিগ্রহণ করে বিশেষ অর্থনৈতিক অঞ্চল স্থাপনের বিরোধিতা করে আন্দোলন করেছিলেন।
Mamata Banerjee (born 5 January 1955) is the 8th and current Chief Minister of West Bengal. She is the first woman to hold the office. Banerjee founded the party All India Trinamool Congress (AITMC or TMC) in 1997 and became its chairperson, after separating from the Indian National Congress. She is usually called "Didi" (meaning elder sister in Bengali). In 2011 Banerjee pulled off a landslide victory for the TMC Congress alliance in West Bengal by defeating the world's longest-serving democratically-elected communist government, the Communist Party of India (Marxist)-led Left Front government, bringing to an end 34 years of Left Front rule in the state. Banerjee previously served as a Minister of Railways twice and is also the first women Railway Minister of India, Minister of Coal, and Minister of State for Human Resource Development, Department of Youth Affairs and Sports and Women and Child Development in the cabinet of the Indian government. She opposed forceful land acquisition for industrialisation by the then communist government in West Bengal for Special Economic Zones at the cost of agriculturalists and farmers. In 2012, the Time magazine named her one of the "100 Most influential People in the World". In September 2012 Bloomberg Markets magazine listed her among the 50 most influential people in the world of finance.
Banerjee was born in Calcutta (now Kolkata), West Bengal in a Bengali family to Promileswar Banerjee and Gayetri Devi. She grew up in a lower middle class family, and her father died when she was young. Banerjee became involved with politics while still in school, joining the Congress (I) Party in West Bengal and serving in a variety of positions within the party and in other local political organisations. As a young woman in the 1970s, she quickly rose in the ranks to become the general secretary of the state Mahila Congress (1976–80).
Banerjee started her political career in the Congress party, and as a young woman in the 1970s, she quickly rose in the ranks of the local Congress group, and remained the General Secretary of Mahila Congress (I), West Bengal, from 1976 to 1980. In the 1984 general election, Banerjee became one of India's youngest parliamentarians ever, beating veteran Communist politician Somnath Chatterjee, from the Jadavpur parliamentary Constituency in West Bengal. She also became the General-Secretary of the Indian Youth Congress. Losing her seat in 1989 in an anti-Congress wave, she was back in 1991 general elections, having settled into the Calcutta South constituency. She retained the Kolkata South seat in the 1996, 1998, 1999, 2004 and 2009 general elections.
In 1997, Mamata Banerjee left the Congress Party in West Bengal and established the All India Trinamool Congress. It quickly became the primary opposition party to the long-standing Communist government in the state. On 11 December 1998, she controversially held a Samajwadi Party MP, Daroga Prasad Saroj, by the collar and dragged him out of the well of the Lok Sabha to prevent him from protesting against the Women's Reservation Bill. In 1999, she joined the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government and was allocated the Railways Ministry.
She returned to the NDA government in January 2004, and held the Coal and Mines portfolio till the Indian general election of 20 May 2004, in which she was the only Trinamool Congress member to win a Parliament seat from West Bengal. On 4 August 2006, Banerjee hurled her resignation papers at the deputy speaker Charanjit Singh Atwal in Lok Sabha. The provocation was the speaker (Somnath Chatterjee)'s rejection of her adjournment motion on illegal infiltration by Bangladeshis in West Bengal. The motion was turned down by the speaker on the ground that it was not in the proper format.
Before the 2009 parliamentary elections she forged an alliance with the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) led by Indian National Congress. The alliance won 26 seats. Banerjee joined the central cabinet as the railway minister (second tenure). In the 2010 Municipal Elections in West Bengal, TMC won Kolkata Municipal Corporation in a margin of 62 seats.
TMC also won Bidhan Nagar Corporation in 16-9 seats margin. In 2011, Banerjee won a sweeping majority and assumed the position of chief minister of the state of West Bengal. Her party ended the 34-year rule of the Left Front.
TMC threatened to withdraw support from UPA in protest of the governments decision to allow FDI in retail markets and also against hike of petrol diesel prices and gave 72hrs for withdrawing the Reforms. On 18 Sep 2012 Evening Mamata Banarjee declared her party has withdrawn support from UPA and ran independently. The TMC's Minister submitted his resignation on Friday 21 Sep 2012.
Throughout her political life Banerjee has maintained an austere lifestyle, never spending much money on clothes, cosmetics or jewellery and always with a cotton bag slung on her shoulder. She has remained single throughout her life.