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Biography Alija Izetbegović

> Bosnia and Herzegovina > Politicians > Stranka Demokratske Akcije > Alija Izetbegović
Alija Izetbegović Alija Izetbegović
Alija Izetbegović
Prvi predsjednik samostalne Republike BiH. | Was an activist, lawyer, author, philosopher and the first President of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
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Alija Izetbegović Biography

BOS:

 

Alija Izetbegović (Bosanski Šamac, 8. augusta 1925. - Sarajevo, 19. oktobra 2003.), političar i prvi predsjednik samostalne Republike Bosne i Hercegovine. Nakon prvih višepartijskih skupštinskih izbora u Bosni i Hercegovini 1990. godine izabran je za predsjednika Republike Bosne i Hercegovine kao predstavnik Stranke demokratske akcije iz redova bošnjačkog naroda, do 1992. godine. Od 1992. do 2000. godine bio je predsjednik sedmočlanog Predsjedništva Republike Bosne i Hercegovine. Kao predsjednik Republike Bosne i Hercegovine proglasio je, nakon referenduma o nezavisnosti 1992. godine, nezavisnost i otcjepljenje od Jugoslavije.

 

Mladost

Rođen u porodici zemljoposjednika, koji su se doselili iz Beograda u Bosanski Šamac 1868. godine. Godine 1928. porodica Izetbegović se seli iz Bosanskog Šamca u Sarajevo, gdje Izetbegović završava mušku realnu gimnaziju. Za vrijeme školovanja 1940. godine priključuje se antikomunističkoj organizaciji Mladi muslimani u Sarajevu. Tokom Drugog svjetskog rata bavi se humanitarnim radom pomaganja izbjeglih i prognanih civila, štiteći i skrivajući progonjene Bošnjake, te saniranja džamijskih ruševina. 1946. godine godine biva uhapšen pod sumnjom da je imao značajnog udjela u utemeljenju islamskog časopis Mudžahid u kojem su publicirane opće teme o islamu, kao i zbog pripadnosti organizaciji Mladi muslimani. Osuđen je na kaznu zatvora od tri godine. Nakon izlaska iz zatvora studira poljoprivredu i od 1954. godine pravo, kog završava u roku od dvije godine.

 

Politička karijera

Nakon odslužene kazne, Izetbegović završava studije na Pravnom fakultetu u Sarajevu i radi kao pravni savjetnik za više jugoslovenskih firmi. 1970. godine, piše Islamsku deklaraciju - opću raspravu o politici i islamu. Upravo ta studija, napisana šezdesetih godina prošlog stoljeća, bit će često uzimana kao dokaz o Izetbegovićevoj političkoj naklonjenosti islamskom fundamentalizmu. Islamska deklaracija biva zabranjena u Jugoslaviji i moguće ju je bilo nabaviti samo ilegalnim putem. Do 1980. godine. godina kada izlazi njegova druga knjiga Islam između Istoka i Zapada, Islamska deklaracija je u Jugoslaviji skoro nepoznata. U drugoj knjizi pokušava definirati položaj bosanskih Muslimana, islama, među ostalim idejama, te razlike između evropske i islamske kulture. Zbog Islamske deklaracije, na političkom procesu 1983. godine, optužen je, zajedno sa dvanaest muslimanskih intelektualaca, za planiranje stvaranja islamske države i osuđen na 14 godina zatvora. Mada u knjizi se ne spominje niti Bosna i Hercegovina, niti Jugoslavija, Deklaracija je bila jedan od značajnih dokaza na sudu. Nakon političkih promjena u Jugoslaviji, izlazi na slobodu nakon pet godina 1988. godine. Tokom ovoga vremena, njegovi spisi Bilješke iz zatvora: 1983-88, bivaju uspješno proturene izvan zatvora i kasnije objavljene. Pisane od Izetbegovića dok je bio zatvoren, Bilješke iz zatvora: 1983-88. su analiza najmoćnijih evropskih ideologija 20. vijeka, uključujući tu komunizam, fašizam, kapitalizam i njihovu relaciju prema islamu.

 

Rat u BiH

1990. godine Izetbegović, sa Fikretom Abdićem, Adilom Zulfikarpašićom i još nekolicinom političara osniva Stranku demokratske akcije (SDA). Zbog tadašnjeg prijedloga zakona o zabrani političkih partija sa nacionalnim predznakom, SDA nema nacionalno definirani naziv, za razliku od druge dvije novoosnovane partije u Bosni i Hercegovini Hrvatske demokratske zajednice (HDZ) i Srpske demokratske stranke (SDS). Na izborima 1990. godine za skupštinu SR BiH izborima za člana sedmočlanog predsjedništva SR BiH, Stranka demokratske akcije osvaja 35,85 % i time najveći broj glasova. Prvo mjesto na predsjedničkim izborima osvaja Fikret Abdić, ali nakon internih diskusija u partiji, Abdić ustupa mjesto predsjednika predsjedništva SR BiH Izetbegoviću. Nakon otcjepljenja i proglašavanja samostalnosti Slovenije i Hrvatske od Jugoslavije 1991. godine, Izetbegović vidi mjesto Bosne i Hercegovine u ostatku Jugoslavije, u jednoj tzv. zdravoj federaciji, koja bi političkom reorganizacijom, naslijedila bivšu državu. Sve do odluka nekoliko vlada evropskih država Evropske Unije 15. januara 1992. godine, o političkom priznanju Slovenije i Hrvatske, Izetbegović pokušava izbjeći kritiku velikosrpske politike prema Bosni i Hercegovini. Politički nespretno ignorisanje sukoba i razaranja sela Ravna kod Trebinja, izjavom "...da to nije naš rat...", Predsjedništvo BiH pokušava izbjeći otvorene sukobe sa JNA i srpskim političarima iz tadašnjeg Predsjedništva Jugoslavije. Ratom u Sloveniji i Hrvatskoj, te jačanjem vojnih aktivnosti Jugoslavenske narodne armije (JNA) i na teritoriju Bosne i Hercegovine, dolazi do odluke o referendumu za nezavisnost Bosne i Hercegovine. Na referendumu održanom 29. februara i 1.marta 1992. godine oko 90% Hrvata i Bošnjaka u općinama gdje je na izborima pobijedila stranka SDA ili HDZ, glasa za samostalnost, dok se u općinama gdje je nakon izbora 1990. godine pobijedila Srpska demokratska stranka ili Srpski pokret obnove (SPO), referendum bojkotuju.

 

izvor

 

 

 

ENG:

 

Alija Izetbegović (8 August 1925 – 19 October 2003) was a Bosniak activist, lawyer, author, philosopher and politician, who, in 1990, became the first president of Bosnia and Herzegovina. He served in this role until 1996, when he became a member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, serving until 2000. He was also the author of several books, most notably Islam Between East and West and the Islamic Declaration.

 

Dissident and activist

In 1970, Izetbegović published a manifesto entitled the Islamic Declaration, expressing his views on relationships between Islam, state and society. The authorities interpreted the declaration as a call for introduction of Sharia law in Bosnia, and banned the publication. The declaration remains a source of controversy. It was used by Serb nationalists to justify the war, often quoting the declaration as an intent to create an Iranian style Muslim republic in Bosnia. Passages from the declaration were frequently quoted by Izetbegović's opponents during the 1990s, who considered it to be an open statement of Islamic fundamentalism. The opinion is shared by some Western authors such as John Schindler. Izetbegović vigorously denied such accusations. British author Noel Malcolm asserted that the Serb nationalist interpretation of the Declaration was false propaganda and offered a more benevolent reading of the declaration. Explaining that it was "a general treatise on politics and Islam, directed towards the entire Muslim world; it is not about Bosnia and does not even mention Bosnia" and that "none of these points can be described as fundamentalist." Malcolm argues that Izetbegović's views were much more thoroughly expressed in his later book, Islam between East and West, where he presented Islam as a kind of spiritual and intellectual synthesis which included the values of West Europe."

 

Izetbegović wrote what is however regarded as his central work, the book Islam between East and West, in 1980. It explores the notion that "Islam is the only synthesis capable of unifying mankind's essentially dualistic existence".

 

Presidency

The introduction of a multi-party system in Yugoslavia at the end of the 1980s prompted Izetbegović and other Bosniak activists to establish a political party, the Party of Democratic Action (Stranka Demokratske Akcije, SDA) in 1989. It had a largely Muslim character; similarly, the other principal ethnic groups in Bosnia, the Serbs and Croats, also established ethnically based parties. (The Communist Party renamed itself the Party of Democratic Changes.) The SDA won the largest share of the vote, 33% of the seats, with the next runners-up being nationalist ethnic parties representing Serbs and Croats. Fikret Abdić won the popular vote for president among the Bosniak candidates, with 44% of the vote, Izetbegović closely behind with 37%. According to the Bosnian constitution, the first two candidates of each of the three constitutient nations would be elected to a seven-member multi-ethnic rotating presidency (with two Croats, two Serbs, two Bosniaks and one Yugoslav); a Croat took the post of prime minister and a Serb the presidency of the Assembly. Abdić agreed to stand down as the Bosniak candidate for the Presidency and Izetbegović became President.

 

Bosnia's power-sharing arrangements broke down very quickly as ethnic tensions grew after the outbreak of fighting between Serbs and Croats in neighboring Croatia. Although Izetbegović was to due to hold the presidency for only one year according to the constitution, this arrangement was initially suspended due to "extraordinary circumstances" and was eventually abandoned altogether during the war as the Serb and Croat nationalistic parties SDS and HDZ abandoned the government. When fighting broke out in Slovenia and Croatia in the summer of 1991, it was immediately apparent that Bosnia would soon become embroiled in the conflict. Izetbegović initially proposed a loose confederation to preserve a unitary Bosnian state and strongly urged a peaceful solution. He did not subscribe to the peace at all costs view and commented in February 1991 that I would sacrifice peace for a sovereign Bosnia-Herzegovina ... but for that peace in Bosnia-Herzegovina I would not sacrifice sovereignty. By the start of 1992 it had become apparent that the rival nationalist demands were fundamentally incompatible: the Bosniaks and Croats sought an independent Bosnia while the Serbs wanted it to remain in a rump Yugoslavia dominated by Serbia. Izetbegović publicly complained that he was being forced to ally with one side or the other, vividly characterising the dilemma by comparing it to having to choose between leukaemia and a brain tumour.

 

After the war

After the Bosnian War was formally ended by the Dayton peace accord in November 1995, Izetbegović became a Member President of Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. His party's power declined after the international community installed a High Representative to oversee affairs of state, with more power than the presidents or parliaments of either the Bosniak-Croat or Serb entities. He stepped down in October 2000 at the age of 74, citing his bad health. However, Izetbegović remained popular with the Bosniak public, who nicknamed him Dedo (which in Bosnian means granpa). His endorsement helped his party to bounce back in the elections of 2002.

 

He died in October 2003 of heart disease complicated by injuries suffered from a fall at home. An ICTY investigation of Izetbegović was in progress, but terminated after his death. Following his death there was an initiative to rename a part of the main street of Sarajevo from Ulica Maršala Tita (Marshall Tito Street) and the Sarajevo International Airport in his honour. Following objections from politicians from Republika Srpska, the international community, and UN envoy Paddy Ashdown, both initiatives failed.

 

On 11 August 2006, his grave at the Kovači cemetery in Sarajevo was badly damaged by a bomb. The identity of the bomber or bombers has not been determined.

 

Personal life

In October 2006, his son Bakir (born 1956) was elected to a four-year term in the Parliament of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a representative of the SDA. Four years later, in October 2010, he too was elected to the Presidency as the Bosniak member.

 

source

26.2.09

updated: 2013-01-05

icon Alija Izetbegović
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